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    天鵝絨的歷史 History of velvet

    發布時間:2023-03-09      點擊次數:68

    天鵝絨的起源可追溯到西漢鏡衣,在元代著名的"絲綿里"剪絨的基礎上發展起來的,

    清 織金地鳳穿花紋漳絨椅披

    清 織金地鳳穿花紋漳絨椅披

    到明代大量生產,并銷往日本、葡萄牙、荷蘭、新加坡等地,尤受日本人喜愛。天鵝絨逐漸從"織素"發展為"起花"、"割花"。且漸趨完美?!陡=ㄍㄖ尽匪稳?明代天鵝絨"機制云蒸,殆奪天工"。明代的絨織品經緯都是蠶絲。漳絨自明代傳到南京江寧織造府后,經加工創新,發展成南京獨有的雕花天鵝絨,在文人士大夫中風行無匹,一時間"金陵絨貴",達官貴人無不攀比,以身穿雕花天鵝絨為榮。 明代兩件重要的天鵝絨實物分別是蘇州王錫爵墓出土的天鵝絨冠和北京明定陵出土的雙面天鵝絨四合如意繡龍補女衣、藍色單面天鵝絨女衣。

    清初,織天鵝絨者分布漳州東門外一帶,有商人包泳設鋪專營。清中葉,上自皇帝、士大夫,下至地方仕紳都用天鵝絨,并定作貢品。制品有龍袍、宮衣、馬褂、帳楣、桌巾等。當時,曾妲為織絨好手。傳世文物有清景陵天鵝絨鎏金朝冠、清晚期藍色漳絨團八寶大襟馬褂、清光緒紫色漳絨福壽三多紋袷坎肩、漳絨山水圖軸、漳絨沈銓繪孔雀圖軸、五蝠捧壽雕花漳絨。

    太平天國起義,天鵝絨名師藝工紛紛避亂江浙。 清末,政府腐敗,漳州的桑林被砍伐開荒,絲料日趨緊缺,老藝人相繼亡故,天鵝絨漸趨衰微。僅余睞仔和曾河二位織絨藝人。南京、杭州等地卻因天鵝絨藝人的到來,而獲發展。

    1929年(民國18年),漳州為恢復天鵝絨生產,創辦工讀學校,聘請名藝師王銘傳授織造技術,但宏愿未成,王銘亡故??谷諔馉幊跗?,有高開口、王溪文、王玉成等人在漳州花園后組織10人傳藝,欲以恢復生產。但質量、風格均較過去為差,銷路、成本都受到杭州、南京等地產品的沖擊,僅3個月就停產。 據1952年調查,天鵝絨藝人(包括龍溪步尾、六石等鄉)總共不上10人,都已改業,且年齡均在60歲以上,工具也已散失,難以恢復生產。后有關部門派漳州絲紗廠兩名干部深入龍溪專區各縣專訪,獲悉南京尚有人會織天鵝絨。1958年,由漳州絲紗廠派人前往南京、杭州、蘇州學習,進行專業培訓,南京為漳州送來了機器。于是漳州的"天鵝絨"重獲生機。1961年3月,絲紗廠用天鵝絨"起花"工藝把董必武為紀念閩南革命題詞"君子所履--毛澤東同志所走的路是指引中國革命勝利的路",織成長170厘米,寬70厘米,淺黃褐色底,黑色絨面的字,是有天鵝絨以來所未見。后因資金和其他

    五蝠捧壽雕花漳絨

    五蝠捧壽雕花漳絨

    原因而停產。截至2009年,漳州只有一個街道辦的工廠生產天鵝絨。

    1994年,丹陽女工景云將原丹陽漳絨絲織廠天鵝絨車間買下來,悉心鉆研天鵝絨,并遍訪名師,最終從蘇州一位周師傅那里學到了南京天鵝絨手工織造全套技藝,且加以創新。1999年年底,丹陽漳絨絲織廠的戴春明造出第一匹機械織造天鵝絨產品,完成了半機械織造天鵝絨,且質量穩定,光澤好,被國家授予"實用新型專利證書"。 從此漳絨織造由手工轉變成半機械織造,由小試到中試到大批量投產,以前兩個人一天只能織0.8米,現在一臺機一天織4米,產量由原來年產不足2000米提高到近二十萬米,滿足了市場對高檔服飾面料的需求。 2003年非物質文化遺產項目天鵝絨織造技藝省級代表性傳承人殷志聰主持了雕花天鵝絨恢復生產工作,培養了雕花天鵝絨藝徒,收集整理了一批傳統作品和生產工具,恢復了全套雕花天鵝絨生產工藝。 戴春明的女兒戴玲,成功復制了清朝初年的一件雕花天鵝絨椅披,并在今年舉辦的2013年中國工藝美術精品博覽會和江蘇省工藝美術精品大獎賽中分獲金獎和銀獎。[1] 2007年3月26日,由丹陽市申報的天鵝絨織造技藝繼被鎮江市人民政府公布為鎮江市非物質文化遺產后,2008年11月又被江蘇省政府公布為江蘇省首批非物質文化遺產。


    The origin of velvet can be traced back to the mirror clothing of the Western Han Dynasty, which was developed on the basis of the famous "Silky wool" cutting in the Yuan Dynasty.

    Qing weaving gold land phoenix wear pattern Zhangvelour chair cloak

    Qing weaving gold land phoenix wear pattern Zhangvelour chair cloak

    To the Ming Dynasty mass production, and sold to Japan, Portugal, the Netherlands, Singapore and other places, especially favored by the Japanese. Velvet gradually developed from "texture" to "initiation" and "cutting". And it's getting perfect. "General Annals of Fujian" described: the Ming Dynasty velvet "mechanism of cloud steaming, almost seize the natural work". The warp and weft of the Ming Dynasty's woolen fabrics are all silk. After being introduced to Jiangning Weaving House in Nanjing in the Ming Dynasty, Zhangjiang Velvet developed into a unique carved velvet in Nanjing after processing and innovation. It was very popular among literators and officials. For a time, "Jinling velvet was very expensive", and all dignites were proud of wearing carved velvet. Two important velvet objects of the Ming Dynasty are the velvet crown unearthed from the tomb of Wang Xijou in Suzhou and the double-sided velvet embroidered dragon Bubu dress and the blue one-sided velvet dress unearthed from the Ming Dingling Tomb in Beijing.


    In the early Qing Dynasty, velvet weaver distributed in Zhangzhou east Gate area, there are businessmen chartered shops franchise. In the middle of Qing Dynasty, velvet was used from the emperor, scholastic officials and local gentry. The products include dragon robes, palace clothes, mandarin coats, lintel, doilies, etc. At that time, Zenda was a good weaver of velvet. The handed down cultural relics include the gilt velvet crown of Jingling Tomb of the Qing Dynasty, the blue Zhangrong group of eight treasures with big flapstick jacket of the late Qing Dynasty, the purple Zhangrong for blessing and longevity, the Zhangrong landscape picture axis, Zhangrong Shen Quan peacock picture axis, five bat holding Shou carved Zhangrong.


    The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom uprising, velvet master art workers have fled the chaos in Jiangsu and Zhejiang. In the late Qing Dynasty, the government was corrupt, Zhangzhou mulberry forests were cut down and opened up, silk materials became increasingly scarce, old artists died one after another, and velvet gradually declined. Only Lai Tsai and Zeng He two velvet artists. Nanjing, Hangzhou and other places because of the arrival of velvet artists, and the development.


    In 1929 (the 18th year of the Republic of China), Zhangzhou established a work-study school in order to resume velvet production, and hired a famous artist Wang Ming to teach weaving technology. However, Wang Ming died. In the early days of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, Gao Qouang, Wang Xiwen, Wang Yucheng and others organized 10 people to spread art behind Zhangzhou Garden in order to resume production. But the quality, style are worse than in the past, sales, costs are affected by Hangzhou, Nanjing and other local products, only 3 months to stop production. According to a 1952 survey, velvet artists (including Longxi Buwei, Liushi and other townships) numbered less than 10, all of whom were over 60 years old. Their tools had been lost, making it difficult to resume production. After the relevant departments sent Zhangzhou silk and gauze factory two cadres in-depth interviews in Longxi counties, learned that there are people in Nanjing can weave velvet. In 1958, Zhangzhou silk and yarn factory sent people to Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou to study, professional training, Nanjing sent machinery for Zhangzhou. So Zhangzhou's "velvet" revived.  After money and other

    Five bats holding Shou carved Zhangvelour

    Five bats holding Shou carved Zhangvelour

    The reason is to stop production. As of 2009, only one street factory in Zhangzhou produced velvet.


    In 1994, Jing Yun, a female worker from Danyang, bought the velvet workshop of the former Danyang Zhangrong Silk Weaving Factory, studied velvet carefully, visited many famous teachers, and finally learned the full set of Nanjing velvet hand-weaving techniques from a master Zhou in Suzhou, and made innovations. At the end of 1999, Dai Chunming from Danyang Zhangrong Silk Weaving Factory produced the first mechanical velvet product, and completed the semi-mechanical velvet weaving, with stable quality and good luster, which was awarded the "utility model patent certificate" by the state. From then on, the Zhangzhou wool weaving changed from manual to semi-mechanical weaving, from small trial to pilot trial to mass production. Before, two people could only weave 0.8 meters a day, now a machine can weave 4 meters a day, the output increased from the original annual output of less than 2000 meters to nearly 200,000 meters, to meet the market demand for high-grade clothing fabrics. In 2003, Yin Zhicong, the provincial representative inheritor of the velvet weaving technique of the intangible cultural heritage project, presided over the restoration of the production of carved velvet, trained carved velvet artisans, collected and sorted out a number of traditional works and production tools, and restored the full set of carved velvet production techniques. Dai Chunming's daughter, Dai Ling, successfully copied a carved velvet chair mantle from the early Qing Dynasty and won the gold and silver awards at the 2013 China Arts and Crafts Fair and the Jiangsu Arts and Crafts Grand Prix held this year. [1] On March 26, 2007, velvet weaving technique declared by Danyang City was declared as the intangible cultural heritage of Zhenjiang City by Zhenjiang Municipal People's Government, and in November 2008, it was declared as the first batch of intangible cultural heritage of Jiangsu Province by Jiangsu Provincial government.


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